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Water Resources Engineering

Water Resources Engineering
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GATE SYLLABUS:

Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics:
Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli's equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical  flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements in channels,  tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and turbines.

Hydrology:
Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage  discharge relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well hydraulics.

Irrigation:
Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Design of weirs on permeable foundation.  Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.

JNTU SYLLABUS:

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I

UNIT I:
Introduction to engineering hydrology and its applications, Hydrologic cycle, types and forms of precipitation, rainfall measurement, types of rain gauges, computation of average rainfall over a basin, processing of rainfall data.

UNIT-II:
Abstraction from rainfall-evaporation, factors affecting evaporation, measurement of evaporation-evapotranspiration-Infiltration, factors affecting infiltration, measurement of infiltration, infiltration indices. Runoff-components of runoff, factors affecting runoff, stream gauging, effective rainfall, separation of base flow.

UNIT-III:
Unit Hydrograph, definition, and limitations of applications of Unit hydrograph, derivation of Unit Hydrograph, S-hydrograph, IUH, Synthetic Unit Hydrograph.

UNIT-IV:
Design Discharge, Computation of design discharge-rational formula, SCS method, flood frequency analysis-Gumbel’s method, log pearson III method, basic concepts of flood routing-hydraulic and hydrologic routing, channel and reservoir routing.

UNIT-V:
Ground water Occurrence, types of aquifers, aquifer parameters, porosity, specific yield, permeability, transmissivity and storage coefficient, types of wells, Darcy’s law, radial flow to wells in confined and unconfined aquifers.

UNIT-VI:
Necessity and Importance of Irrigation, advantages and ill effects of Irrigation, types of Irrigation, methods of application of Irrigation water, Indian agricultural soils, methods of improving soil fertility, preparation of land for Irrigation, standards of quality for Irrigation water.

UNIT-VII:
Soil-water-plant relationship, vertical distribution of soil moisture, soil moisture constants, soil moisture tension, consumptive use, estimation of consumptive use, Duty and delta, factors affecting duty, depth and frequency of Irrigation, irrigation efficiencies.

UNIT-VIII:
Classification of canals, design of Irrigation canals by Kennedy’s and Lacey’s theories, balancing depth of cutting, canal lining.

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-II

UNIT-I:
Diversion Head works: Types of Diversion head works-diversion and storage head works, weirs and barrages, layout of diversion head works, components. Causes and failure of hydraulic structures on permeable foundations, Bligh’s creeptheory, Khosla’s theory, determination of uplift pressure, impervious floors using Bligh’s and Khosla’s theory, exit gradient, functions of U/s and d/s sheet piles.

UNIT-II:
Canal structures I: types of falls and their location, design principles of Sarda type fall, trapezoidal notch fall and straight glacis fall.

UNIT-III:
Canal structures II: canal regulation works, principles of design of distributory and head regulators, canal outlets, types of canal modules, proportionality, sensitivity and flexibility.

UNIT-IV:
Cross Drainage works: types, selection of site, design principles of aqueduct, siphon aqueduct and super passage.

UNIT-V:
Types of dams, merits and demerits, factors affecting selection of type of dam, factors governing selecting site for dam, types of reservoirs, selection of site for reservoir, zones of storage of a reservoir, reservoir yield, estimation of capacity of reservoir using mass curve.

UNIT-VI:
Gravity dams: Forces acting on a gravity dam, causes of failure of a gravity dam, elementary profile and practical profile of a gravity dam, limiting height of a low gravity dam, stability analysis, drainage galleries.

UNIT-VII:
Earth dams: types of Earth dams, causes of failure of earth dam, criteria for safe design of earth dam, seepage through hearth dam-graphical method, measures for control of seepage.

UNIT-VIII:
Spillways: types of spillways, design principles of Ogee spillways, types of spillway gates.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients

 

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I

TEXT BOOKS: 
1. Engineering Hydrology by Jayaram Reddy, Laxmi publications pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
2. Irrigation and water power engineering by Punmia & Lal, Laxmi publications pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

REFERENCES:
1. Elementary hydrology by V.P.Singh, PHI publications.
2. Irrigation and Water Resources & Water Power by P.N.Modi, Standard Book House.
3. Irrigation Water Management by D.K. Majundar, Printice Hall of India.

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-II

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Irrigation engineering and hydraulic structures by S.K Garg, Khanna publishers.
2. Irrigation engineering by K.R.Arora
3. Irrigation Engineering by R.K. Sharma and T.K. Sharma, S. Chand Publishers

REFERENCES:
1. Irrigation and water resources engineering by G.L. Asawa, New Age International Publishers
2. Concrete dams by Varshney.
3. Theory and Design of Hydraulic structures by Varshney, Gupta & Gupta
4. Water resources engineering by Satyanarayana Murthy. Challa, New Age International Publishers