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Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering
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GATE SYLLABUS:

Highway Planning:
Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements.

Traffic Engineering: 
Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design, traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.

JNTU SYLLABUS:

UNIT I HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING:
:Highway development in India – Necessity for Highway Planning- Different Road Development Plans- Classification of Roads- Road Network Patterns – Highway Alignment- Factors affecting Alignment- Engineering Surveys – Drawings and Reports.

UNIT – II HIGHWAY GEOMETIC DESIGN:
Importance of Geometric Design- Design controls and Criteria- Highway Cross Section Elements- Sight Distance Elements- Stopping sight Distance, Overtaking Sight Distance and intermediate Sight Distance- Design of Horizontal Alignment- Design of Super elevation and Extra widening- Design of Transition Curves-Design of Vertical alignment-Gradients- Vertical curves.

UNIT – III TRAFFIC ENGINEERING:
:Basic Parameters of Traffic-Volume, Speed and Density- Traffic Volume Studies- Data Collection and Presentation-speed studies- Data Collection and Presentation- Parking Studies and Parking characteristics- Road Accidents-Causes and Preventive measures- Accident Data Recording – Condition Diagram and Collision Diagrams.

UNIT – IV TRAFFIC REGULATION AND MANAGEMENT:
:Road Traffic Signs – Types and Specifications – Road markings-Need for Road Markings-Types of Road Markings-Design of Traffic Signals –Webster Method –IRC Method.

UNIT – V INTERSECTION DESIGN:
Types of Intersections – Conflicts at Intersections- Types of At-Grade Intersections- Channel isation: Objectives –Traffic Islands and Design criteria-Types of Grade Separated Intersections- Rotary Intersection – Concept of Rotary and Design Criteria- Advantages and Disadvantages of Rotary Intersection.

UNIT – VI INTRODUCTION TO RAILWAY ENGINEERING:
:Permanent way components – Cross Section of Permanent Way - Functions of various Components like Rails, Sleepers and Ballast –Rail Fastenings – Creep of Rails- Theories related to creep – Adzing of Sleepers- Sleeper density.

UNIT – VII GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF RAILWAY TRACK:
Gradients- Grade Compensation- Cant and Negative Super elevation- Cant Deficiency – Degree of Curve – Crossings and Turn outs .

UNIT – VIII AIRPORT ENGINEERING:
Factors affecting Selection of site for Airport – Aircraft Characteristics- Geometric Design of Runway- Computation of Runway length – Correction for runway length – Orientation of Runway – Wind Rose Diagram – Runway Lighting system.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

Therefore it provides a stabler representation from one repetition to another of a particular speaker's utterances. As for the regression coefficients, typically the first- and second-order coefficients are extracted at every frame period to represent the spectral dynamics. These coefficients are derivatives of the time functions of the cepstral coefficients and are respectively called the delta- and delta-delta-cepstral coefficients.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

Therefore it provides a stabler representation from one repetition to another of a particular speaker's utterances. As for the regression coefficients, typically the first- and second-order coefficients are extracted at every frame period to represent the spectral dynamics. These coefficients are derivatives of the time functions of the cepstral coefficients and are respectively called the delta- and delta-delta-cepstral coefficients.

 

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Highway Engineering – S.K.Khanna & C.E.G.Justo, Nemchand & Bros., 7th edition (2000).
2. Railway Engineering – A text book of Transportation Engineering – S.P.chadula – S.Chand & Co. Ltd. – (2001).
3. Highway Engineering Design – L.R.Kadiyali and Lal- Khanna Publications.
4.Airport Planning and Design- S.K.Khanna and Arora,Nemchand Bros.

REFERENCES:
1. Highway Engineering – S.P.Bindra , Dhanpat Rai & Sons. – 4th Edition (1981)
2. Traffic Engineering & Transportation Planning – Dr.L.R.Kadyali, Khanna publications – 6th Edition – 1997.
3. Railway Engineering – August – Prabha & Co., 15th Edition – 1994.
4. Air Transportation Planning & design – Virendhra Kumar & Statish Chandhra – Gal Gotia Publishers (1999).