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Structural Engineering
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GATE SYLLABUS:

Mechanics:

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress and strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress transformation, Mohr's circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin  walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis:
Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames, displacements in statically determinate  structures and analysis of statically indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.
Concrete Structures:
Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete design-basic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
Steel Structures:
Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases. Connections- simple and eccentric, beam'column connections, plate girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

JNTU SYLLABUS:

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – I

UNIT – I PROPPED CANTILEVERS :
Analysis of propped cantilevers-shear force and Bending moment diagrams-Deflection of propped cantilevers.

UNIT – II FIXED BEAMS:
– Introduction to statically indeterminate beams with U.D.load central point load, eccentric point load. Number of point loads, uniformly varying load, couple and combination of loads shear force and Bending moment diagrams-Deflection of fixed beams effect of sinking of support, effect of rotation of a support.

UNIT – III CONTINUOUS BEAMS:
Introduction-Clapeyron’s theorem of three moments- Analysis of continuous beams withconstant moment of inertia with one or both ends fixed-continuous beams with overhang, continuous beams with different moment of inertia for different spans-Effects of sinking of supports-shear force and Bending moment diagrams.

UNIT-IV  Slope-Deflection Method:
Introduction, derivation of slope deflection equation, application to continuous beams with and without settlement of supports.

UNIT – V ENERGY THEOREMS:
Introduction-Strain energy in linear elastic system, expression of strain energy due to axial load, bending moment and shear forces - Castigliano’s first theorem-Deflections of simple beams and pin jointed trusses.

UNIT – VI MOVING LOADS:
Introduction maximum SF and BM at a given section and absolute maximum S.F. and B.M due to single concentrated load U.D load longer than the span, U.D load shorter than the span, two point loads with fixed distance between them and several point loads-Equivalent uniformly distributed load-Focal length.

UNIT – VII INFLUENCE LINES:
Definition of influence line for SF, Influence line for BM- load position for maximum SF at a section-Load position for maximum BM at a section single point load, U.D. load longer than the span, U.D. load shorter than the span- Influence lines for forces in members of Pratt and Warren trusses.

UNIT –VIII INDETERMINATE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS:
Indeterminate Structural Analysis –Determination of static and kinematic indeterminacies –Solution of trusses with upto two degrees of internal and external indeterminacies –Castigliano’s theorem.

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – II

UNIT –I
ARCHES:
Three hinged arches, Elastic theory of arches – Eddy’s theorem – Determination of horizontal thrust, bending moment, normal thrust and radial shear – effect of temperature.

UNIT – II
TWO HINGED ARCHES:
Determination of horizontal thrust bending moment, normal thrust and radial shear – Rib shortening and temperature stresses, tied arches – fixed arches – ( No analytical question).

UNIT-III
Approximate method of structural analysis , application to building frames. (i) Portal method (ii) Cantilever method.

UNIT – IV
Slope deflection method : Derivation of slope deflection equation of supports application to continuous beams including settlement of supports single bay, single sway, portal frame including side sway.

UNIT – V
Moment Distribution method – Stiffness and carry over factors – Distribution factors – Analysis of continuous beams with and without sinking of supports – storey portal frames – including Sway-Substitute frame analysis by two cycle.

UNIT – VI
Analysis of continuous beams – including settlement of supports and single bay portal frames with side sway by Kani’s method.

UNI – VII
Flexibility methods, Introduction, application to continuous beams including support settlements.

UNIT – VIII
Stiffness method: Introduction, application to continuous beams including support settlements.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

Therefore it provides a stabler representation from one repetition to another of a particular speaker's utterances. As for the regression coefficients, typically the first- and second-order coefficients are extracted at every frame period to represent the spectral dynamics. These coefficients are derivatives of the time functions of the cepstral coefficients and are respectively called the delta- and delta-delta-cepstral coefficients.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

Therefore it provides a stabler representation from one repetition to another of a particular speaker's utterances. As for the regression coefficients, typically the first- and second-order coefficients are extracted at every frame period to represent the spectral dynamics. These coefficients are derivatives of the time functions of the cepstral coefficients and are respectively called the delta- and delta-delta-cepstral coefficients.

 

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – I

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Analysis of Structures-Vol I & Vol II by V.N. Vazirani & M.M.Ratwani, Khanna Publications, New Delhi.
2. Structural Analysis by V.D.Prasad Galgotia publications, 2nd Editions.
3. Analysis of Structures by T.S. Thandavamoorthy, Oxford University Press, New Delhi
4. Comprehensive Structural Analysis-Vol.I&2 by Dr. R. Vaidyanathan & Dr. P.Perumal- Laxmi publications pvt. Ltd., NewDelhi
5. Basic structural Analysis by C.S. Reddy, Tata Mcgrawhill, New Delhi

REFERENCES:
1. Mechanics of Structures by S.B.Junnarkar, Charotar Publishing House, Anand, Gujrat
2. Theory of Structures by Gupta, Pandit & Gupta; Tat Mc.Graw – Hill Publishing Co.Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Theory of Structures by R.S. Khurmi, S. Chand Publishers
4. Strength of Materials and Mechanics of Structures- by B.C.Punmia, Khanna Publications, New Delhi.
5. Introduction to structural analysis by B.D. Nautiyal, New age international publishers, New Delhi

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – II

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Analysis of Structures – Vol. I & 2 by Bhavikathi, Vikas publications
2. Analysis of structures by Vazrani & Ratwani – Khanna Publications.
3. Strength of Materials and mechanics of solids Vol-2 by B.C. Punmia, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi
4. Comprehensive Structural Analysis-Vol.I&2 by Dr. R. Vaidyanathan & Dr. P.Perumal- Laxmi publications pvt. Ltd., NewDelhi

REFERENCES :
1. Structural Analysis (Matrix Approach) by Pundit and Gupta – Tata Mc.Graw Hill publishers.
2. Theory of structures by Ramamuratam
3. Structural Analysis by C.S. Reddy, Tata Macgrawhill, New Delhi.