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Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing who is speaking on the basis of individual information included in speech waves. This technique makes it possible to use the speaker's voice to verify their identity and control access to services such as voice dialing, banking by telephone, telephone shopping, database access services, information services, voice mail, security control for confidential information areas, and remote access to computers.
Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments).
The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients. Therefore it provides a stabler representation from one repetition to another of a particular speaker's utterances. As for the regression coefficients, typically the first- and second-order coefficients are extracted at every frame period to represent the spectral dynamics. These coefficients are derivatives of the time functions of the cepstral coefficients and are respectively called the delta- and delta-delta-cepstral coefficients.
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