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Geotechnical Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering
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GATE SYLLABUS:

Soil Mechanics:
Origin of soils, soil classification,  three-phase system, fundamental definitions, relationship and interrelationships, permeability & seepage, effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.

Foundation Engineering:
Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopesinfinite slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types-foundation design requirements. Shallow foundations-bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands & clays. Deep foundations pile types, dynamic & static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands & clays, negative skin friction.

JNTU SYLLABUS:

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING – I

UNIT – I INTRODUCTION:
Soil formation – soil structure and clay mineralogy – Adsorbed water – Mass- volume relationship –Relative density.

UNIT – II INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOILS:
Grain size analysis – Sieve and Hydrometer methods – consistency limits and indices –I.S. Classification of soils

UNIT –III PERMEABILITY:
Soil water – capillary rise – flow of water through soils – Darcy’s law- permeability – Factors affecting –laboratory determination of coefficient of permeability –Permeability of layered systems.

UNIT –IV SEEPAGE THROUGH SOILS:
Total, neutral and effective stresses –quick sand condition – Seepage through soils –Flownets: Characteristics and Uses.

UNIT – V STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS:
Boussinesq’s and Wester  gaard’s theories for point loads and areas of different shapes – Newmark’s influence chart .

UNIT – VI COMPACTION:
Mechanism of compaction – factors affecting – effects of compaction on soil properties. – Field compaction Equipment - compaction control.

UNIT – VII CONSOLIDATION:
stress history of clay; e-p and e-log p curves – magnitude and rate of 1-D consolidation – Terzaghi’s Theory.

UNIT – VIII SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS:
Mohr – Coulomb Failure theories – Types of laboratory strength tests – strength tests based on drainage conditions – Shear strength of sands – Critical Void Ratio – Liquefaction- shear strength of clays.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING – II 

UNIT – I SOIL EXPLORATION:
Need – Methods of soil exploration – Boring and Sampling methods – Field tests – Penetration Tests – Plate load test – Pressure meter – planning of Programmed and preparation of soil investigation report.

UNIT – II EARTH SLOPE STABILITY:
Infinite and finite earth slopes – types of failures – factor of safety of infinite slopes – stability analysis by Swedish arc method, standard method of slices, Bishop’s Simplified method – Taylor’s Stability Number-Stability of slopes of earth dams under different conditions.

UNIT – III EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES:
Rankine’s theory of earth pressure – earth pressures in layered soils – Coulomb’s earth pressure theory – Culmann’s graphical method

UNIT-IV RETAINING WALLS:
Types of retaining walls – stability of retaining walls.

UNIT – V SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS:
Types - choice of foundation – Location of depth – Safe Bearing Capacity – Terzaghi, Meyerhof, Skempton and IS Methods

UNIT-VI
Safe bearing pressure based on N- value – allowable bearing pressure; safe bearing capacity and settlement from plateload test – allowable settlements of structures - Settlement Analysis

UNIT –VII PILE FOUNDATION:
Types of piles – Load carrying capacity of piles based on static pile formulae – Dynamic pile formulae – Pile load tests - Load carrying capacity of pile groups in sands and clays – Settlement of pile groups.

UNIT-VIII WELL FOUNDATIONS:
Types – Different shapes of wells – Components of wells – functions and DesignDesign Criteria – Sinking of wells – Tilts and shifts.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

 

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING – I

TEXT BOOKS:
1 Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics by Gopal Ranjan & ASR Rao, New age International Pvt . Ltd, New Delhi
2. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engg. By K.R. Arora, Standard Publishers and Distributors, Delhi.
3. Soil Mechanics and Foundation by by B.C.Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain, Laxmi, publications Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi

REFERENCES:
1. Geotechnical Engineering by C. Venkataramiah, New age International Pvt . Ltd, ( 2002).
2. Soil Mechanics – T.W. Lambe and Whitman, Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Company, Newyork.
3. Geotechnical Engineering by Purushotham Raj
4. Geotechnical Engineering by Manoj Dutta & Gulati S.K – Tata Mc.Grawhill Publishers New Delhi.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING – II

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics by Gopal Ranjan & ASR Rao, New Age International Pvt. Ltd, (2004).
2. Foundation Engineering by Varghese,P.C., Prentice Hall of India., New Delhi.
3. Soil Mechanics and Foundations by - by B.C.Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain, Laxmi, publicationsPvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

REFERENCES:
1. Das, B.M., - (1999) Principles of Foundation Engineering –6th edition (Indian edition) Thomson Engineering
2. Bowles, J.E., (1988) Foundation Analysis and Design – 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Publishing company, Newyork.
3. Analysis and Design of Substructures – Swami Saran, Oxford and IBH Publishing company Pvt Ltd ( 1998 ).
4. Geotechnical Engineering by S. K.Gulhati & Manoj Datta – Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing company New Delhi. 2005.5. Teng,W.C – Foundation Design , Prentice Hall, New Jersy.