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Environmental Engineering

Environmental Engineering
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GATE SYLLABUS:

Water requirements:
Quality standards, basic unit processes and  operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic  unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of  water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

Air Pollution:
Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits. Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and  transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

Noise Pollution:
Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

JNTU SYLLABUS:

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING – I

UNIT – I Introduction:
Waterborne diseases – protected water supply – Population forecasts, design period – water demand –factors affecting – fluctuations – fire demand – storage capacity – water quality and testing – drinking water standards.

UNIT-II SOURCES OF WATER:
Comparison from quality and quantity and other considerations – intakes – infiltration galleries distribution systems. – requirements – methods and layouts.

UNIT III:
Layout and general outline of water treatment units – sedimentation – principles – design factors – coagulation-flocculation clarifier design – coagulants – feeding arrangements.

UNIT –IV:
Filtration – theory – working of slow and rapid gravity filters – multimedia filters – design of filters – troubles in operation comparison of filters – disinfection – theory of chlorination, chlorine demand, other disinfection practices- Miscellaneous treatment methods.

UNIT-V:
Distribution systems -Design procedures- Hardy Cross and equivalent pipe methods service reservoirs – joints, valves such as sluice valves, air valves, scour valves and check valves water meters – laying and testing of pipe lines – pump house.

UNIT VI:
Conservancy and water carriage systems – sewage and storm water estimation – time of concentration – storm water overflows combined flow – characteristics of sewage – cycles of decay – decomposition of sewage, examination of sewage – B.O.D. – C.O.D. equations. Design of sewers – shapes and materials – sewer appurtenances manholes –inverted siphon – catch basins – flushing tanks – ejectors, pumps and pump houses – house drainge – components requirements – sanitary fittings-traps – one pipe and two pipe systems of plumbing – ultimate disposal of sewage –sewage farming – dilution.

UNIT – VII:
Layout and general out line of various units in a waste water treatment plant – primary treatment design of screens – grit chambers – skimming tanks – sedimentation tanks – principles of design – biological treatment – trickling filters –standard and high rate.

UNIT-VIII:
Construction and design of oxidation ponds - Sludge digestion – factors effecting – design of Digestion tank – Sludge disposal by drying – septic tanks working principles and design – soak pits.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING – II

UNIT – I:
Air Pollution – sources of pollution – Classification – effects on human beings – Global effects of Air pollution.

UNIT – II:
Air pollution Control Methods – Particulate control devices – General Methods of Controlling Gaseous Emission.

UNIT – III:
Special Treatment Methods – Adsorption – Reverse Osmosis – Defluoridation – Ion exchange – Ultra Filtration.

UNIT –IV:
Theories industrial waste treatment – Volume reduction – strength reduction – Neutralization – Equalization –Proportioning – Nitrification and Denitrification – Removal of Phosphates.

UNIT – V:
Solid waste Management – sources, composition and properties of solid waste – collection and handling – separation and processing.

UNIT – VI:
Solid waste disposal methods – Land filling – Incineration composting.

UNIT – VII:
Hazardous Waste – Nuclear waste – Biomedical wastes – chemical wastes – Effluent – disposal and Control methods.

UNIT – VIII:
Noise Pollution – effects of noise and control methods – Effluent standards – Air emission standards – Water Act – Air Act – Environment Protection Act.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

 

Speech recognition technology is used more and more for telephone applications like travel booking and information, financial account information, customer service call routing, and directory assistance. Using constrained grammar recognition, such applications can achieve remarkably high accuracy. Research and development in speech recognition technology has continued to grow as the cost for implementing such voice-activated systems has dropped and the usefulness and efficacy of these systems has improved. For example, recognition systems optimized for telephone applications can often supply information about the confidence of a particular recognition, and if the confidence is low, it can trigger the application to prompt callers to confirm or repeat their request. Furthermore, speech recognition has enabled the automation of certain applications that are not automatable using push-button interactive voice response (IVR) systems, like directory assistance and systems that allow callers to "dial" by speaking names listed in an electronic phone book.

Speaker identity is correlated with the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the speaker. These characteristics exist both in the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and in the supra-segmental features (voice source characteristics and dynamic features spanning several segments). The most common short-term spectral measurements currently used are Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)-derived cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. A spectral envelope reconstructed from a truncated set of cepstral coefficients is much smoother than one reconstructed from LPC coefficients.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING – I

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Water supply and sanitary Engineering by G.S. Birdi, Dhanpat Rai & Sons Publishers.
]2. Water Supply Engineering, Vol. 1, waste water Engineering, Vol. II, B.C.Punmia, Ashok Jain & Arun Jain, LaxmiPublications Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi
3. Elements of environmental engineering by K.N. Duggal, S. Chand Publishers

REFERENCS:
1. Water and Waste Water Technology by Mark J Hammar and Mark J. Hammar Jr.
2. Water and Waste Water Technology by Steel
3. Water and Waste Water Engineering by Fair Geyer and Okun
4. Waste water treatment- concepts and design approach by G.L. Karia and R.A. Christian, Prentice Hall of India
5. Waste water Engineering by Metcalf and Eddy.
6. Unit operations in Environmental Engineering by R. Elangovan and M.K. Saseetharan, New age International

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING – II

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Environmental Science and Engineering by J.G.Henry and G.W.Heinke – Person Education.
2. Environmental Engineering and Management – Dr.Suresh K.Dhameja – S.K.Kartarai & Sons 2nd Edition 2005.

REFERENCES:
1. Physico – Chemical process for waster quality control by Weber
2. Air Pollution and Control by MN Rao & H.N.Rao